Vive la commune by 10 Rue d'La Madeleine
It's an obstinate theme since centuries and we didnt want it to be forgotten...and you must know why... of course you can use the song for your site and you are right there are not often rock band which use it...Lets call it Barock!!!lol
The sheet music
Duration: 1'42", 02 kB.
Santiago Rodriguez plays all variations
|Theme of Variations on a theme of Corelli||Belwin Mills edition, 1959 p. 2|
The Corelli Variations is not only his last work for solo piano,
but in fact the only work for solo piano composed during his twenty six years
of exile in the USA. It was first played by him in New York 1932. The theme
is not actually by Corelli. It is an ancient dance melody called La Folia
which has been quoted or varied by various composers down the ages, including
Bach, Cherubini and Liszt.
Rachmaninov uses the theme as it appears in Corelli's twelfth violin Sonata, and his set of twenthy variations, though beautiful and compelling in it's own right, can be seen as a sort of study or preparation for the immensely succesful Rhapsody on a theme by Paganini for piano and orchestra which appeared two years later: certainly variations four and eight seem to anticipate passages in the later work. The selfdoubt which haunted Rachmaninov throughout his life led him to indicate that variations eleven, twelve and nineteen may be omitted if desired, though they are rightly included in this recording. Otherwise, each variation sets off its neighbours by neat contrasts of mood or colour. There is a passage marked 'Intermezzo' after variation thirteen which is really a sort of cadenza; and the work ends with a reflective, slow coda.
Variations on a Theme of Corelli by James Bonn
Rachmaninoff completed his Variations on a Theme of Corelli Op. 42 on June 19, 1931. This is not only his last work for solo piano but it
is the only work for solo piano composed during his twenty-six years of exile in the U.S.A. it is dedicated to Fritz Kreisler and Rachmaninoff
first played it in Montreal on October 12, 1931.
This set of variations represents the second time Rachmaninoff .had expressed himself in this form; the first was the Variations on a Theme of Chopin, Op. 22, composed during 1902-1903. He was to use the form one more time in the famous Rhapsody for Piano and Orchestra (on a theme of Paganini) Op. 43 composed during 1934.
Rachmaninoff wrote Nicholas Medtner about the work on December 21, 1931, from New York: "I am sending you my new Variations. I've played them here about fifteen times, but of these fifteen performances, only one was good. The others were sloppy. I can't play my own compositions! And it's so boring! Not once have I played these all in continuity. I was guided by the coughing of the audience. Whenever the coughing increased I would skip the next variation. Whenever there was no coughing I would play the proper order. In one concert, I don't remember where - - some small town, the coughing was so violent that I only played ten variations (out of twenty). My best record was set in New York, where I played eighteen variations."
The theme that inspired this set is not by Corelli but is by now our ancient and familiar dance melody Ia Folia. Rachmaninoff uses the theme as it appears in Corelli's twelfth violin Sonata, and his set of twenty variations, though beautiful and compelling in its own right, can be seen as a sort of study or preparation for the immensely successful Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini for piano and orchestra which appeared two years later: certainly variations four and eight seem to anticipate passages in the later work. The self-doubt which haunted Rachmaninoff through his life led him to indicate that variations eleven, twelve and nineteen may be omitted if desired, though they are rightly included in this recording. Otherwise, each variation sets off its neighbors by neat contrasts of mood or color. There is a passage marked Intermezzo after variation thirteen which is really a sort of cadenza; and the work ends with a reflective, slow coda. The variations are organized into an entirely logical structure, with a series of swift variations (16-20) reaching a dramatic climax before the pensive coda. The rhythms are more vital than in his mature Russian works (apparent, for example, in the incisive fifth variation, with its frequently changing time-signature) and the harmonies are more adventurous, more pungent, particularly in the slower Nos. three, eight, and nine, and in the masterly shift of key from D minor to D flat major in variation fourteen, after the mild turbulence of the Intermezzo. All of these characteristics constitute a new, more subtle mode of expression, and Vladimir Wilshawk rightly commented on the difference that had overcome his style since the more extrovert Etudes-Tableaux (during a performance on which Rachmaninoff had broken a string on the piano). Rather like his last set of songs, the Corelli Variations leave a feeling of regret that Rachmaninoff never again wrote a solo piano piece and allowed the attractive features of this later style to develop fully.
The Variations on a theme of Corelli (actually a traditional tune called La Folia used by Corelli in his twelfth violin sonata) was Rachmaninov's last work for piano solo (1931). Though as skilfully constructed set of variations in its own right, it have(sic!) often been seen as a precursor of the Rhapsody on a them of Paganini, which followed three years later, and certainly there are frequent pre-echoes of that perennial favourite in the Corelli Variations, as can be heard with the benefit of their juxtaposition here.
Through his work with the violinist Fritz Kreisler (a partnership that
produced a whole series of gramophone recordings) he had got to know the
violin music of Arcangelo Corelli, one of whose themes appealed to him so
much that in 1931 he used it as the basis of a set of piano variations, his
Variations on a Theme of Corelli op. 42. In fact, the theme derives from an
old Iberian folkson, but what matters more is that Rachmaninov got to know
it in Corelli's melancholy guise.
The piano writing in this late work is a little stricter and more translucent than in the composer's earlier piano pieces. As a whole these variations are a fine example of Rachmaninov's incipient late style and, as such, a model for the pieces that he wrote during the summer months between now and his death in the United States in 1943.
The thematic basis of the work is a Portuguese dance melody 'La Folia', which was used by several Baroque composers as a variation theme and features in one of Corelli’s sonatas. Amazingly, Rachmaninov does not vary the theme by creating virtuoso developments of the original. Corelli’s variations concentrated on individual harmonic developments, something that also characterises Rachmaninov’s later works. The compositional skill with which Rachmaninov treats the Baroque theme takes the wind out of the sails of critics who consider him to have been a briliant pianist but deny that he was a talented composer.
The warm friendship between Rachmaninov and Fritz Kreisler resulted not in a violin work but
in a set of solo piano variations dedicated to Kreisler, for whom Joseph Joachim had once
predicted a solo career as a pianist. The unlikely collaboration between two such temperamentally different artists as
the taciturn Rachmaninov and the amaible Kreisler yielded a series of remarkable recordings of Beethoven, Schubert and Grieg violin sonatas.
Kreisler introduced Rachmaninov to the tune 'La Folia', which he believed to be by Corelli, but which is of more ancient Portuguese origin. Rachmaninov was very taken with its potential for variation treatment, and during the summer of 1931 he composed the 'Variations on a Theme of Corelli'. These mark a return to the creativity that had deserted him following the cool reception of the Forth Concerto, yet for all their clarity of texture (a foretaste of the 'Paganini' Variations), the 'Corelli' Variations were again largely misunderstood by audiences. Rachmaninov regarded this reception with disdain and in December 1931 wrote to Medtner: 'I've played them about fifteen times, but ... not once have I played them in full. I was guided by the audience's coughing. When the coughing increased I skipped to the next variation. When there was no coughing I played them in the proper order. At one concert ... the coughing was so violent that I only played ten variations out of twenty'. My record is in New York, where I managed eighteen. Rachmaninov's continued disillusionment meant that he never again attempted a large-scale work for solo piano.
More well known (than the 'Variations on a theme of Chopin') is the 'Variations
on a theme of Corelli' Rachmaninov composed the work during the summer of 1931,
a time of some despair for him. On January 15th of that year, his name appeared
in the New York Times as a signatory to a letter that was critical of the current
government in Russia. Tweo months laterin a Moscow review of a performance of his
composition 'The Bells', he was referred to as a 'violent enemy of Soviet Russia'.
This initiated a boycott of (the study and performance of) his music in Russia. Even
though Rachmaninov said he was proud to be the object of such wrath, it must have hurt
him deeply. Nevertheless, he commenced composing the 'Corelli' variations at the end
of May, while in Clairefontaine, France. Although he complained that he did not have
the time to compose and writing was harder for him now than when he was younger, he
quickly completed it by the end of June. He then began to revise his second piano sonata.
It may have been Fritz Kreisler, to whom the 'Variations on a theme of Corelli is dedicated, who made Rachmaninov aware of Corelli's theme. (In 1928, they had recorded violin and piano works of Beethoven, Grieg, and Schubert.) Although the theme was used by the Italian composer and violinist Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) in the twelfth violin sonata (opus 5), the tune was not original with Corelli, but is an old Portuguese melody called La Folia. (Other composers besides Rachmaninov, such as C.P.E. Bach in his Twelve Variations auf die Folie d'Espagne, also utilized this theme.)
Rachmaninov's 'Corelli' variations can be grouped into contrasting sections. After the first thirteen variations (which are all in the key of D minor), there is an 'intermezzo', which is followed by two variations in the very alien key of D-flat major. For the last five variations and coda, Rachmaninov returns to to D minor. This work seems preparatory for his 'Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini', which he composed three years later. Many of the variations (such as number 10) foreshadow the later work.
Rachmaninov gave the public premiere of 'Variations on a Theme of Corelli' on October 12, 1931, in Montreal. Based upon his remarks to his friend Nikolai Medtner (to whom Rachmaninov had dedicated his last piano concerto), Rachmaninov did not seem to enjoy playing this work. (He once said that playing his own music was boring.) Rachmaninov stated that whenever there was more coughing in the audience, he would skip the next variation! In one recital, he played only ten of the twenty variations, though in New York he performed eighteen. Moreover, for some curious reason, as in his earlier set of variations, Rachmaninov allows the performer the option of omitting three (numbers 11, 12, and 19). However, in both sets (also the Variations on a Theme of Chopin) of variations Mr. Wild properly plays them all!
Flight including As your mind flies by
Rare Bird - Sympathy (1970) - (9) As Your Mind Flies By
First appears at 0:37
I shall of course happily contribute the info about Follia, follia
Presently I work as composer-in-residence for the well-known Danish period ensemble Concerto Copenhagen. When the great Italian oboist Alfredo Bernardini wanted to organize a concert centered around La folia, he asked me to write a short piece for this occasion and I immediately accepted. The endless number of variations on this 500 years old melody is a virtual relay race through history, literally "from time to time", and it was fascinating to imagine a tiny place for oneself in this line.
The instrumentation was more or less given from other pieces on the program. I wrote the music during the late summer of 2015.
"Il Trionfo della Folia" owes everything but its structure to the past.
I was working on Piano Sonata No. 8 when I first met Walter Ponce, and he expressed considerable interest in the work. At that
time I was not completely happy with the piece, but with Ponce's encouragement I
got it hammered out as the kind of virtuoso vehicle that I had imagined it could be.
Since the piece uses fragments at first, then complete phrases of the famous "Folia"
theme and since the other materials trade on the gestures, if not real quotations
from standard repertoire, I was justifiably concerned that the whole thing would
come off merely as a bombastic rehash.
The real key to the piece is the integration of at least six kinds of musical complexes, all of which use intervals in varying orders from the "Folia" theme. Not until those ideas are fully fleshed out does "La Folia" emerge with its concomitant harmony and familiar bass. The real "trionfo" is that this familiar stuff becomes reborn in the integration of its variants. The piece is cast in a single movement to emphasize the continually developing and plastic nature of the musical materials.
Sonatori de la Gioiosa Marca at You Tube in a live performance
Sonatori de la Gioiosa Marca at You Tube
Born in Venice in the second half of the 17th century, Giovanni Reali was a little-known Italian violinist and composer. He is said to have been 'maestro di cappella' in Guastalla in 1725. Among his works are sonatas and caprices for 2 violins and basso continuo, which were published as Opus 1 in Venicein 1709. This volume also contained the present Theme and Variations on 'La Follia', which were dedicated to Arcangelo Corelli, the author of a set of variations on the same theme. Compared with those of other composers who have been inspired by this famous theme, Reali's Variations lack nothing in wealth of invention, color or appeal.
My own 'Folias Nuevas' for baroque guitar has not been recorded yet. I should do it! It is one page only and it's like a 'prelude on the Folia' in fact.
Fantasy on Corelli's La Folia (2001)
La Folia - literally a folly, or even, madness - began life as a 16-measure ground (melody and bass), composed sometime in the 16th century in Portugal. Whoever wrote it should have posthumous claim to some substantial, overdue royalty payments, as the tune was to become one of the most eduring and widely used of all grounds, subjected to expansion and variation by composers from Vivaldi to Rachmaninov and beyond. One of the most famous sets of Folia variations was written by the celebrated Italian violinist Arcangelo Corelli sometime around the year 1700, as the conclusion to his Opus 5 set of violin sonatas, and later arranged for recorder and continuo. It is this latter version that we have used as a framework for ours, adding a second part for the violin and freely infiltrating our own material throughout. Whilst the resulting musical madness may not fit the currently accepted boundaries of 'authenticity' we hope that it is taken in the truly Baroque spirit with which it - and indeed the whole album - is intended...Frank T. Nakashima wrote for Whole Note Magazine (Toronto) in December 2002:
And do we really need another recording of Corelli’s La Folia? No? Wrong answer. Red Priest’s own Fantasy based on this famous piece is outrageous, raucous, and radical, but still within the realm of historical possibility.
Duration: 2'38", 05 kB.
Sheet music in pdf-format
I think that the tempo may be little slower but not so much (redaction: instead of the 82
and the suggestion to drop the tempo to adagio) .
In the opus 97 of Reicha, there is no adagio but lento. Others studies are
indicated : andante maestoso, or poco andante. So Reicha indicates precisely
what he wants.
Some of the others studies are Arias and they are notated as sarabands but not in 3/4 but in 3/2. In this case, the "brevis nota" of the first mesure is also a quaver or a semiquaver, so shorter in comparison. So Reicha knew the difference...
If you want to play slower, you need a very better quality of sound and a intense "sentimental" (Reicha knows Kant !) play. I had not yet the occasion of playing this piece on a fortepiano to hear how it can sound and to hear the resonance of the full accords, which would influence the tempo.
Duration: 5'56", 20 kB.
7 page in pdf-format, 121 kB
|Manuscript from the archive Bosch van Rosenthal
with the name of Hen. Reinis
|© Rijksarchief Gelderland,
used with permission
Duration: 1'07", 1054 kB. (128kB/s, 44100Hz)
Even during the 15th century, 'Follias' were the ecstatic peaks of traditional fertility ceremonies in the cultural
area found to the South-West of the Pyrenees. A continuing repetition of the same harmonic formula was supposed to
conjure up spirits and put the dancers in a trance-like state.
This effect corresponds to the meaning of the word 'Folia' as a generic term for 'madness', or 'craziness', but also
for 'infatuation' in Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking areas.
The last, fifteenth variation on the 'FOLIE D'ESPAGNE' BY HENRICH REINIS is, in this interpretation, a more or less spontaneous – swept along – improvising continuation of the theme by the musician.
Based on the knowledge that performance practice of the 17th century was far more linked to the idea of a musical improvisation in many respects than to the playing of pre-fabricated notes, some middle voices for the dance movements in the suites in the course of the 'Follia' were written by the musician according to the rules of basso continuo and compositional theory in the 17th century.
Duration: 1'30", 1433 kB. (128kB/s, 44100Hz)
Variations et Les Folies d'Espagne (2013-2014)
My idea with the piece was that the La Folia theme should gradually appear, not be obviously played at once as the Folias often tend to do. The piece is also written in a-minor, not the normal d-minor, which I think suits it better. (despite that the midi file performs it in a-flat minor, for making it sound as the Baroque tuning of 415)
The piece starts in the wrong time signature (2/4) and without the La Folia chord progression. The correct chord progression appears first at bar 18, but still in the wrong time signature (2/4). The first theme goes threw several variations and almost unnoticeable get it self into the correct time signature of the La Folia (3/4) in bar 66. The full La Folia theme can now finally appear since the correct time signature and chord progression have been presented. Finally on variation no. 5 as a result of the previous development of the earlier variations the main theme appears in a proud fortissimo.
The piece ends with an quiet extreme contrapuntal Coda later named: "Chaos" in bar 267. Here several of the earlier variations meet and blends them selves in with some of the newer variations, where all the parts should be played as individualistic solo parts; non should be hidden away, all the parts are equally important!
Duration: 0,43", 04 kB.
Duration: 2,16", 28 kB.
Duration: 2,05", 08 kB.
Duration: 2,19", 24 kB.
I began working in December 2001 on a
set of variations on the theme known as 'La Follia'.
La Follia was an excellent choice, because it is for me an example of a
truly perfect theme. It's aural appeal alone makes me want to listen to
it over and over, making it a ready candidate for variations. It's 16
bars are the paragon of balance; 8 bars take you from tonic to dominant,
and another 8 bars take you back. It is capable of being both very
simple and very complex. It's no wonder that literally hundreds of
variations on La Follia have been written over the last 4 centuries.
My variations (completed May 26, 2002) are based on Jean-Baptiste
Lully's 'Les folies d'Espagne' of 1672 -- one of the earliest examples.
The first movement of my sonata simply presents the theme on which the
following movements are based, and is basically identical to Lully's
opening theme, except that I removed all ornamentation in my version.
The meter of almost all Follia variations is in 3. The first thing I
wanted to try was a variation in 2/4 time, which is what I did in the
second movement. Also, most Follia variations simply repeat the 'Follia
chord-progression' over and over. I had to get away from that as well in
order to accomplish the key transitions necessary in Sonata form. The
second movement opens with the familiar 16-bar chord progression, then,
during the development, departs on a transition towards the dominant A
minor, eventually returning to D minor for the recapitulation.
The third movement opens with a variation in which La Follia is reduced
down to the chord progression itself. The central section is
essentially a diminution of the theme, with a transition back to a recap
of the beginning.
The fourth movement is in the form of a Rondo, which allowed me 4 variations in ABACDCABA format. The 2 solo violins alternate throughout the movement, giving both an equal opportunity to play the theme. This set of La Follia variations, written in the Baroque style, is a testament to the La Follia theme itself. No other theme in the history of music has been so readily and widely adaptable to variation.
I've come across another potential La Folia entry for your website during my research. The piece is currently not featured on your list.
Below is the information that I found; it does not give any further description of the music or a score sample since it only exists in manuscript, but I presume that it shouldn't be too difficult to get additional information from the Budapest Music Center (BMC) or the composer directly
Duration: 15'31" direct link to YouTube
We found it in the Biblioteca de Cataluña in Barcelona.
The manuscript, titled "Partes de Folias", has a theme and then 13 variations. Some of these variations are very closely influenced (and even copied) by other published folias from the time (like Corelli's, for example). We added then another 16 variations which fit the character of this folia very well.
I can't give an accurate date for this folia, but it's definitely 18th century and as I said must be after Corelli's publication since there is at least one very clear quotation
|Opening of Partite De Follia Flauto||MS de Venezia, Biblioteca Palatina, Parma|
The Folia theme was a popular tune in Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries. There are two different types of Folias: The Early Folia (earliest described in Salinas's De musica libri septem, 1577) and the Late Folia (starting from the 1670's). The differences between the early and the late folias are more evident in the melodic and rhythmic patterns than in the harmony. The late folia is attributed to Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687). It received popularity all over Europe: In France it was called foli(e) d'Espagne, in England Farinell(i)'s Ground. Pablo Miguel y Yrol (Reglas y advertencias generales, 1754) calls the earlier type folias españolas and the later type folias italianas. Folias usually have many variations. The Partite de Follia of the MS in Venice belongs to the late Folia.Eyal Streett wrote about this composition:
As you can see the two most interesting thing about this particular folia are:
1. the elaborate bass line in the theme.
2. the second half of the theme which is harmonically unique
. In addition to the given variations in the manuscript, we have added a number of variations ourselves. As you can see, the original manuscript is for recorder and basso continuo. We realize the b.c. part with both a cello and a bassoon. This means we have to add another part so actually our version of this follia is for three parts not two.
Duration: 1'35", 03 kB.
|Theme of Folías||by Hudson Vol I, p. 95|
I've always been intrigued by the folia myself, when I was a teenager and living in Brazil there was a popular pop song (I forget by which band) that had the lines "quando a folia passa,. something something multidao" (when the folia passes by, it entices the crowds) and I've always wanted to know what that was about, so thanks for finally shedding light into this 20-year-old puzzle! :-)
Duo Arpeado in a live performance in Paris 2011
An arrangement of Ribayaz Folia by the Harp Consort
The fiery passions of the 16th century Portuguese folias were still smouldering in the folias italianas style to be found in Luz y Norte, but the dance became a vehicle for the exhibition of technical virtuosity in the French Folies d'Espagne
Lucas Ruiz de Ribayas (born in a small town near Burgos about the middle of the 17th century) published 25 pieces conceived specifically for the harp in his work Luz y Norte músical para caminar por las cifras de la Guitarra y Arpa (Madrid, 1677). Bacas, Folias, Paradetas, Pabanas and Hachas are names of ancient Spanish dances which today have completely disappeared.
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