Duration: 3'13", 2938 kB. (128kB/s, 22050 Hz)
Carrying out an adventure, sowing long-lasting seeds is what the Trio Polycordes intends to do with this second record, focusing on the creative processes at a given time in a sort of inventory of today's musical praxis. The first recording recounted the genesis of an ensemble and a repertoire. Now time has come to develop both a story and an identity, to lay solid foundations. This second record aims at clearing a musical "terra incognita", giving each instrument the opportunity to reveal itself, making sure this shared land will be flourishing. Régis Campo's filiation can be traced back to the Baroque age . He pays a tribute to this musical tradition and at the same time perpetuates and renews it. Dancing is closely related to the "Suites de danse" made famous by composers such as Couperin or Rameau but Campo adds his own touch of night club atmosphere. The work is built round a glorious and luxuriant Chaconne. The theme of La Follia, clearly brought out at the outset, is gradually blurred by rich arabesques but can still be heard distant and faint as in a dream. Main panel of a contemporary altar-piece, this brilliant part is enhanced by the extremely minimalist movements that surround it. The first of them - Rag-Tango - is a double humorous reference. Regis Campo follows both Rag Time's spasmodic rhythm and the glissandos of the double-bass typical of a tango band. This unlikely mixing results in a strange ballet of sounds, a poetical evocation in which the dancers' steps on the stage may be heard through muffled notes. The last two movements belong to the tradition of animal paintings or that of the bestiary. Fly Dance in the Dark pursues the trill of the Chaconne and turns it into a key element in that behavioural study of flies' life. The buzzing insects induce a progressive fall into drowsiness in the listener. It's a lazy summer day's rest. But hey! What sheer pandemonium at the beginning of the fourth movement! Clucking, squawking, cackling, flapping of wings wake us up in an infuriated henhouse. Chicken Rock is a true, boisterous, gallinaceous Woodstock.
Duration: 2'50", 2604 kB. (128kB/s, 44100 Hz)
The Livre de Sonatas ('Book of Sonatas') for organ groups several commissions from the Spanish Ensems 97 festival, the city of Auch and Radio France. Composcd between 1997 and 1999, this is the fruit of a wonderful. lasting oollaboration with the young Frcnch organist Jean-Christophe Reve1. Each sonata is conceived in a single movement developing a single idea, in the manner of Domenico Scarlatti's sonatas or, better yet, Rameau's harpsichord pieces. L'extravagant is a sort of mechanical fantasy mingled with obsession ansd false naïvete. Le Don and La Nuit are the two most nocturnal sonatas of the cycle, the second, of course, being dedicated to the great master Vivaldi, whereas La Follia makes use of the famous 15th century dance. [...].
The sonata 'La Follia' is taken from my 'Livre de Sonates' composed betwen 1997 and 1999 for the benefit of the young
organist Jean-Christophe Revel. This 'Livre' gathers together several orders from Radio France, the Spanish festival Ensems at Valencia,
and the Association of the Friends of the Organs at the cathedral of Auch.
Each Sonata, built in a single movement and developed around one theme only, is a reminder of Scarlatti's Sonatas or Rameau's Pieces for the harpsichord. Sonata no. 4 'La Follia' brings back the famous 15th century dance in a somewhat ironical and outmoded way. Pascal Rouet gives us a dynamic and personal version, highly consistent with the forceful spirit of my music.
This version for guitar was written with the help of the French guitarist Jean-Marc Zwellenreuter. I was looking for a very playful sound, Baroque in character and with humour and wit. This version is very different from the original version for organ with respect to texture and dynamics. I like the idea of the bottleneck in this piece; it is a good example of my ludic musical style.
Régis Campo made a new Folia-version, in the spirit of composers of the 17th century, who didn't hesitate to transcribe their works for different instrumental formations. After the presentation of the theme in a rather baroque style, the composer uses different modes in the aim of disarticulating the phrase and introducing different kinds of interferences. The long development in harmonics was suggested by Régis Campo by a cadence in a concerto for guitar by Villa-Lobos.
Folías Españas (Follies of Spain) for piano
La Follia è uno di quei temi la cui origine si perde nella notte dei tempi, spingendoci a ritroso, in Portogallo, almeno fino al XV secolo, per arrivare fino ai nostri giorni, dopo aver attraversato tutta la storia della musica, con centinaia di versioni e variazioni sul tema. Nel mio lavoro il riferimento è soprattutto alle versioni della Follia date da Marin Marais nelle Variazioni “Les Folies d’Espagne” e da Georg Friedrich Händel nella Sarabanda dalla Suite in Re minore. Sul tema della Follia si reggono alcune campate che sostengono il pezzo, strutture di otto misure, o multipli, in cui spesso il frammento diviene un materiale che si dispone anche verticalmente, arrestando il flusso melodico-armonico, raggelandolo in cluster, diatonici, o creando scie sonore che prolungano la memoria tematica e che conducono lentamente l’ascolto altrove, pur evocando un’illusoria caleidoscopica staticità.
Dalla Follia diventa poco alla volta impossibile liberarsi, questa è l’esperienza che ne ho fatto. C’è infatti una forma ossessiva nel tema che attraversa tutto il pezzo, una follia lucida, straniante, ipnotica nel suo ruotare sempre intorno a se stessa. Nomen omen.
La viola d’amore è accordata in maniera tradizionale (La Re La Re Fa La Re), mentre le sette corde di simpatia contengono anche due note eccentriche, Mib e Sib.
La Folia is a set of variations for chamber orchestra, commissioned by l'Ensemble du Jeu Présent, with the assistance of the Canada Council. La Folia was one of the most popular bass progressions used for sets of variations, songs and dances in the late Renaissance and Baroque eras. Its origins are obscure, although it probably originated in Spain or Portugal some time in the early 16th century, from whence it spread to Italy, France and England. It goes under many names in many countries - la folia , la follia , les folies d'Espagne and Farinel's Ground , among others. And it is often, though not always (and not in this piece), associated with a standard discant melody. Some of the more famous treatments of la folia include a set of keyboard diferencias by Antonio de Cabezön (1510-66), a set of variations for violin by Michel Farinel (1685), the masterly set of 24 variations in d, Op. 5, No. 12, for violin and continuo, by Archangelo Corelli (1700), and the Sonata in d, Op. 1, No. 12, for two violins and continuo, by Antonio Vivaldi (1705). In La Folia a variant of the original bass progression is woven, usually very audibly and clearly, but in many different voices and textures, into the fabric of each variation.The oeuvre of Patrick Cardy can be found at http://www.carleton.ca/~pcardy/
Duration: 3'54", 11 kB.
I just composed a new variant of the Folias. These are "loose" variations in that I allowed myself to modulate to other keys and to insert a parallel major version of the Folias chord progression. The piece starts in D minor and is written in 17th century style counterpoint and gradually evolves into a more modern treatment with modulations to a variety of keys and ending in D major. Although my variations are based on the Folias chord progression, nowhere in the piece do I actually quote the Folias melody The playing time at 100 bpm should be about 6 minutes. I was inspired to write this after seeing the Folias-website. The PDF score and an mp3 file are attached.
All Variations on Folias created with Finale (GPO) by Michael L. Carroll
Variations on Folias in pdf-format, size 60 Kb
I've completed another folias composition, this time a duet for two guitars. It starts off with the traditional folias with variations in d minor and then modulates to a minor where it presents variations on a different chord progress but similar in some ways to the folias; then it modulates back to d minor and the folias chord progression for a short reprise.
You have my permission to post on the Fol website.
All Variations of Theme and Canonic Variations on Folias of SpainFolias created with Finale (GPO) by Michael L. Carroll
Theme and Canonic Variations on Folias of Spain in pdf-format, size 70 Kb
Theme and Canonic Variations on Folias of Spain in pdf-format, size 60 Kb
Theme and Canonic Variations on Folias of Spain in pdf-format, size 60 Kb
Theme and 9 var. in pdf-format, size 2.44 Mb
|Opening of Variations de Las Folias d'Espagne||from the original publication|
Duration: 0'39", 02 kB.
|Opening of Variations de Las Folias d'Espagne||Published in 'Guitarre & Laute', 1995|
La Follia by Herman Vandecauter
Duration: 1'27", 1.4 Mb. (128kB/s, 44100 Hz)
Finally, it was difficult to resist this last temptation: our Walloon Folklore has an abundance of tunes going back to the beginning of time, and 'Poule Noire' (Black Hen) is nothing if not an authentic Folia which has come down the ages through popular dancing.
Folias by Chatham Baroque with guests live
A very nice and transparent composition for brass quintet. Somewhat in the idiom of the Folia variations by Jan Bach, which I consider as one of most interesting and enjoyable efforts to translate the Folia theme to modern times. The nice thing of a brass quintet is that the voices are so clear that the listener can distinguish the action and interaction bewteen the voices. Further on the Folia theme has a somewhat fragile setting with that modest melody line but the brass instruments transform the music into a very powerful statement especially with those firm trumpets. Those intriguing features strike me again when listening to the music of Jean Chatillon with his Fantaisie sur La FoliaJean Chatillon wrote about his Fantaisie sur La Folia:
It was after listening to the fine compositions of my two friends of the Delian Society (editor: Thomas Matyas and David W. Solomons) that I became intoxicated by this tema.
Duration: 7'58", 7.56Mb. (128kB/s, 44100 Hz)
Fantaisie sur La Folia, 22 pages in pdf-format, size 255 Kb
Musicians from Budapest
Pieterjan Van Kerckhoven and Bart Van Troyen
Sometimes there is a historical reference - the use of the traditional theme 'La folia'in L'Hotellerie portugaise.
L'Hôtellerie portugaise, one of three one-act opéras comiques written in 1798 and 1799, is based on the familiar plot of the lovers who have to outwit the old guardian bent on marrying his pretty young ward himself. Set in an inn on the border between Spain and Portugal, the story this time moved Cherubini to make a discreet application of local colour, in the form of allusions to the popular Portuguese tune La Folia, in the slow introduction to the ouverture. The main Allegro section is a skilfully achieved accumulation of eager expectation which reaches its climax just before the end.
The premiere of Les Abencérages took place at the Paris Opéra on 6 April 1813 in the presence of Napoleon and his wife and it proved one of the greatest successes of Cherubini's career.
The fact that this was one of Cherubini's most successful operas is confirmed not only by the enthusiastic comments of the
many personalities present at the first performance, including Napoleon and Marie. Louise, but paradoxically also
by the request made by the composer himself after about twenty performances that the dramaturgical part of the opera be cut
and reduced into two acts in order to create more space for ballets. A practice reserved in France only for those operas that sought
to becomepart of the "repertoire" [...]
To hear again the French version of 'Les Abencerages, however, we had to wait for the radio production of 15th January 1975 which Peter Maag and Radio Italiana chose to perform. This is a production that returned to the original three-act version of the opera, with limited use of ballets, and is proposed without significant cuts compared to the radio performance tradition of the time.
La Folie d'Espagne in 26th Recueil de Contre-danses et Waltzes. page 20 and 21
|Opening of La Folie d'Espagne||Published ca. 1810|
Somalia in pdf-format, size 37 Kb
Somalia by Gintonic
This is a composition I've made for my jazz-rock band Gintonic. It's based on the Follia (the Intro is the Pasamezzo Antiquo). It's very recent so I don't hace still the audio. I hope i will send you in a couple of months. I play flute and EWI in the jazz-rock band Gintonic.
Although I play mainly jazz - rock by now, my beginnings in music were in the field of early music. I have play many sets of variations upon the Folia (Vivaldi, Marin Marais...) with the recorder. I think the Folia and the Blues (as schema, the 12 measures) are the major cathedrals in music. I've write this music as a reaction to the human disaster in Somalia (the last 3 letters are the same -lia) Of course, It's possible to publish the sheet music in your website.
Somalia is based on this schema:
Intro: 8 bars (Pasamezzo antiquo)
Theme: Folia (Am7 - E7#9 - Am7 - G9 --- CMaj7 - G9 - Am7 - E7#9 --- Am7 - E7#9 - Am7 - G9 --- CMaj7 - G9 - Am7-E7#9 - Am7) 2 times
Guitar open solo (E7#9)
Intro: 8 bars (P.A.)
Theme: Folia 2 times
Flute solo: second half of Folia many times
All the chords are "jazzified" i.e. (instead of Am-E-Am-G, I've write Am7-E7#9-Am7-G9) but the chord progression of the main theme is the Folia in A minor.
In the future I will send you the link of YouTube with this music.
The complete theme and variations as played by the maestro Jorge Cardoso
It's in the Folies d'Espagne by Le Cocq that we find a compendium of the language of the baroque guitar, in an aesthetic and idiomatic synthesis of the subdued and rarefied folk influences, the peculiarities of a more elaborate performing technique and the profound expressive idiom of musical culture in the baroque era.
Live performance by Francesco Mirarchi
In Baroque times, no melody or chord
schema was more often used in
variations than the Folly from Spain.
Incontestably, Corelli's «La Folia» is the
most famous, but even ].S. Bach used the
theme' in his «Peasant Cantata».
Originally, the Folly was a wild dance, in which men in carnival costume often ~eached a state of hysterical trance. The Church did not approve and as a result the Folly was gradually transformed into the slow, solemn melody we know today
The Folly was extremely popular among baroque guitar players, to the point that Robert de Visee - almost alone in not publishing one - felt it necessary to write in his introduction: «Neither will one find here the Spanish Folly. So many of these are now to be
heard, that I could only repeat the follie of others».
There is not the space here to list all the Follies written for the Baroque Guitar, but the three collected on this record are among the most beautiful: that of the Spaniard F. Gereau, the Brussels-born F. Le Cocq and the ltalian A.M.B. whose works have been neglect to this day.
In later times as well, guitar players have shown their partiality for the Spanish Folly and the two greatest guitar composers of the 19th Century, Fernando Sor and M. Giuliani, wrote variations on these themes. In our own times the Mexican Manuel Ponce, who wrote principally for the guitar, also composed some Follies; indeed, his most important work comprises no less than 20 variations followed by a majestic fugue.
We are indebted to the Flemish clergyman and amateur guitarist, Jean-Baptiste de Castillion (1680-1753), whose activities as a music copyist have preserved the guitar music of François Le Cocq (fl.1685-1729), Nicolas Derosier (c.1645-1702) and many pieces by Corbetta not found in the surviving printed books. In the preface to the manuscript which he copied in 1730 (B:Bc.Ms.S.5615) Castillion says that in 1729 Le Cocq gave him copies of his music, which he re-copied for his own use, adding pieces by several other composers of the previous century. He says that Le Cocq taught the guitar to the wife of the Elector of Bavaria and refers to him playing to the sister of the Archduke Charles of Austria, later emperor Charles VI. This was probably Maria Antonia, a half-sister of Charles, who married the Elector Maximillian II Emanuel in 1685 and died in 1692. In 1729 Le Cocq is described as a retired musician of the Chapel Royal in Brussels. His variations on Folies d'Espagne is a technical tour de force featuring the 'harpegemens', elaborately arpeggiated chords, which were a jealously guarded secret of Le Cocq's. Castillion says that he rarely indicated them in his music so as to conceal how he played them and to preserve them to himself alone.
Duration: 3'18", 4886 kB. (128kB/s, 44100 Hz)
Duration: 0'59", 958 kB. (128kB/s, 22050 Hz)
Live performance of Folia parts ending with the famou duet 13 Aug. 2005
Francesco Conti (1681-1732), now almost forgotten, was a very famous and highly respected composer in
his time. The largest part of his life he worked at the imperial court in Vienna. In 1708 he was
apointed first theorbo player, in 1713 he became also court composer. After these appointments he became
one of the highest paid musicians in Vienna, who was able to perform his own works with the best singers,
since he could pay them well. After falling ill in 1726 he returned to Italy, but in 1732 he returned to
Vienna to introduce some new works. It is an indication of his reputation that his successor as court
composer, Antonio Caldara, had to step aside to make place for Conti. Shortly thereafter Conti died.
This work performed was composed for the Carnival season in 1719. It was extremely successful: it was even translated into German, and was performed 25 times outside Vienna, mainly in Hamburg. Don Chisciotte in Sierra Morena is a tragicommedia, which combines elements of the opera seria and the intermezzo (a form of comedy which was performed in between the acts of the opera seria as a form of compensation for the disappearance of all comic elements from the opera seria). It not only combines these elements, but also ridicules some elements of the opera seria. The way Conti portrays Don Quixote and Sancho Pansa in particular is brilliant. Don Quixote, a puffed so-called knight, who believes that he is a hero, and doesn't want to see the truth, even if it is right under his nose.
In Conti's time, Don Chisciotte lasted about 5 hours.
[...] Such conversations bore Don Quixote and especially Sancho Panza. They leaf through the music of Conti's opera, which he had brought with him. "Look, my dear Sancho, just look at this! Indeed, how marvelously our story is told," exclaims Don Quichote, " how wonderfully fresh the music - I like it! And it also has real Spanish character, even a follia!" Grumbling to himself he recalls the evening's opera performance of this miserable piece of work by Mattheson: "Granted, the music is nice, but the story is not at all the right thing for a Spaniard. here, on the other hand: A follia! A chaconne! A Ballo de Pagarellieri, a ballet of the squires, like Mr. Conti has composed it - this is something that is knightly and would certainly also please my Dulcinea!"
Duration: 3'37", 20 kB.
|Opening of Conti's Folia||Artaria publication for the opera La pastorella nobile|
This is a printed keyboard vocal score of a duet composed by Conti used for the first Viennese production of Guglielmi's comic opera La pastorella nobile. The singers were Adriana Ferrarese (the first Fiordiligi in Mozart's "Cosi fan tutte") and Francesco Benucci (the first Figaro and Don Alfonso). The entire duet is based on La Folia; the text is probably by Lorenzo da Ponte. The first Viennese production of "La pastorella nobile" is discussed in my dissertation "Emperor and impresario: Leopold II and the transformation of Viennese musical theater, 1790-1792"In the dissertation John A. Rice writes (p. 125):
[...] Also added to the Viennese version in place of the recitative in the original was the duet for D. Florida and D. Polibio, "Va pur in malora," attributed in the Artaria print to one "Sig. Conti." (It is not clear that this duet was in fact sung as part of Guglielmi's opera. The text appears in the 1790 libretto, but a note at the end of the libretto informs us that the duet was omitted in performance; yet Artaria issued a keyboard reduction of the duet and described it as "eseguito dall Sigra. Feraresi ed il Sigr. Benucci nell'Opera la Pastorella Nobile.")
An effort to minimize inevitable monotony is discernible
in the set of 23 variations, particularly by giving to the accompaniment
as active a role as possible. Several times in the 3rd variation and in
the 16th the same designs are exchanged between melody and bass. Sometimes
this reciprocity operates between groups of two variations; for example,
between the 4th and 5th, 6th and 7th, 20th and 21st. Still more
revealing is the manner in which the ostinato of the bass is now and then
halted. The harmonic framework of the 14th is new, likewise that of the
19th, which is in imitation with supple modulations and that of the 20th,
which cadences in F while the 21st variation traverses the reversed key
sequence. Finally, an elongation by four measures at the close of the last
phase attests, by itself, to Corelli's desire to evade customary routine
and to invest a somewhat naive architecture with a degree of nobility.
But there is no doubt, as is evident from a cursory reading of the follia that in Corelli's eyes its interest was of a violinistic order before all else. Everything he knew about the matter of instrumental technique, which he had scattered throughout Opus V, and the device of variation, enabled him to concentrate, to classify, and to demonstrate with precision in a veritable corpus of doctrine. By technique, that of bowing should be understood; for as regards to the left hand, Corelli's role, (.....), far from being constructive, was limited to 'pruning'.
Duration: 5'16", 40 kB.
Duration: 7'03", 47 kB.
Duration: 8'56", 59 kB.
|Theme of Violin Sonata in d minor La Follia||arr. for violin and b.c.|
The complete score of la Folia opus 5 no. 12
Marie Therese had at her disposal many wind and brass players, whom she sometimes brought together in orchestras that must have made a brilliant and colorful sound. Her concert on 18 July 1802 ended with what she referred to as "Die Follia di Spagna mit allen Instrumenten von Eybler." Eybler is not known to have composed such a work (footnote 66: No orchestral variations on La Follia by Eybler are listed in Hermann [= Hildegard Hermann, Thematisches Verzeignis der Werke von Joseph Eybler, Munich, 1976]). But she owned, under the title Follia a più strumenti, an anonymous orchestral transcription of the variations on La Follia from Corelli's violin sonatas, Op. 5 (CaM, p. 62; see Fig. 1.3), which the diary allows us to attribute to Eybler. The orchestral parts call for (in addition to strings) pairs of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns, trumpets, and timpani (footnote 67: A-Wgm, XIII 29392).
Assassin's Creed Unity at 20'14" and further
I had detected a little part of Corelli's Follia played with the solo violin in the Bastille in the video game "Assassin's Creed Unity (2014). Theme at 22:09 of this video and a variations at 23:35 to 26:53.
piano roll, 1921
Duration: 5'45" direct link to YouTube
Duration:6'26" direct link to YouTube
La Follia has proved the most popular and is the oldest permanent classic of the virtuoso's repertoire.
It was a favorite with the 19th Century performers who added luxuriant accompaniments and spectacular cadenzas. In the
original form, as recorded here, it consists of twenty-three variations for violin and harpsichord on the theme
of an old Portuguese dance. The dance was originally accompanied by tambourines and performed by men dressed in women's
clothes who acted so wildly that they appreared to be out of their senses, hence the title 'Follia' meaning 'Madness'
This tune was used in vocal music by Steffani and Milanuzzi. In harpsichord solo variations by d'Anglebert, François Couperin (Les Folies Françoises), Alessandro Scarlatti, and Pasquini. And in an organ setting by Cabanilles. J.S. Bach employed it in the ' Peasant Cantata' (record Allegro alg-82). It is found in works by Gretry (in the Opera 'L'Amant Jaloux') and in 'The Beggar's Opera' to the words ' Joy to Great Ceasar'. Other composers who made use of La Follia include François Farinel, whom Corelli met in Hannover around 1680, Lully, Frescobaldi, Marais, Pergolesi, Vivaldi, Keiser, Cherubini, Liszt, and even Rachmaninoff (in his Variations on a theme by Corelli, Opus 42).
Andrea Lausi wrote about recorder-music in general and in particular the Brüggen-Bylsma-Leonhardt-trio (used with permission, 2005):
I have always considered the anthologies issued by the Brüggen-Bylsma-Leonhard
trio for Telefunken (Italian Recorder Sonatas, Blockflötenmusik auf Originalinstrumenten...)
among the key recordings of the ‘70s. Veritable chamber music lesson,
these recordings shaped the perception of the recorder as a musical instrument
for many years to come. What I find central to this is the quality, so-to-say
the real magic, of Brüggen’s sound. The recorder is an instrument with
a particular limited amount of overtones – it is actually a good approximation
to a sonic laser with all the energy concentrated in the fundamental –
and Brüggen’s playing puts this quality at the center of his constant
focus. A playing where the center of the tone is never missed, the sound being
always direct and full. These qualities blend with the play of other two musicians
in interpretations of a simple nobility, where the 'abstract' timbre of the
recorder – the quality Brüggen once defined as its 'dangerous innocence'
– appears perfectly functional in putting in evidence all of the curves
and shapes of the compositional architecture.
The Brüggen-Bylsma-Leonhard series included also a very impressive rendition of the Follia and, given such an overwhelming example to confront with, I have been always surprised that in the past years so many recorder players recorded the piece, which after all is definitely not a piece composed originally for the recorder. [...] and I find the Cavasanti-Guerrero-Erdas reading to be perhaps the first to cope with the mastery of BBL example. [...]
The work differs only in points of detail from the versions for violin and demands a high degree of technical competence on the part of its performance, since Corelli, an accomplished violinist, conceived the work as a virtuoso bravura showpiece. The folia or ostinato bass, after which the piece is named, is a solemn, weighty theme that is subjected to a total of twenty-one variations to produce a veritable fire-work display of ideas.
Corelli's variations on La Folia, from the beginning of the 18th century the composer's most famous work,
were originally written for violin and figured bass and constitute, in this version, the last of the twelve 'Sonate a violino e violone o cimbalo',
which first appeared in Rome with the superscription of 1st January 1700, and by 1720 saw no fewer than twenty reprintings,
above all in Amsterdam and London.The present version for recorder (in which the only simplifications are of technical peculiarities
like the chords or double-stopping of the violin version) had already been published in 1702 by Walsh in London. The
imaginative title 'La Folia' (Walsh wrote 'La Follia') denotes nothing more than that the work is constructed on the bass pattern known
as a 'folia', which first emerged in Spanish and Italian music in the early 16th century as a bass (i.e. as a harmonic framework)
for vocal and instrumental movements, and thence, partly also combined with more or less fixed or varied upper melodic part,
set out on its victorious path through Europe. In the instrumental music of Corelli's time, particularly in the sets of variations,
this pattern atteined its richest flowering - not only Corelli himself, but also Pasquini, d'Anglebert, Cabanilles, Marais and
Alessandro Scarlatti wrote sets of variations on La Folia, in so doing giving free rein to their imagination, particularly from
the point of view of technique.
Corelli's 'sonata' is planned as a sequence of a theme and 21 variations. The theme preserves, along with the traditional 3/4 measure, the traditional descant melody and its sarabande character; thereafter movement and melodic figuration are increased from variation to variatio, and rhythm, tempo and compositional technique constantly changed, while the harmonic movement and its symmetric organisation (4 + 4, 4 + 4 bars, both halves repeated) remain firmly fixed. The frequent recurrence of long phrases building up from grave crotchet movement in sarabande rhythm to virtuosic semiquaver figurations in the separate movements gives the work its inner coherence and its accompanying dynamics; the abundance of ingenious melodic and constructional ideas and the extraordinary technical demands lend it that range of colour and that air of fantasy which already fascinated its contemporaries and made the work so uniquely famous.
The final work in the collection is a set of 23 variations on La Follia, a sixteen-bar ground bass that had been used as the basis of variations for well over a century and had by then picked up an 'accompanying' melody in chaconne rhythm. This is something of a tour de force, particularly in bowing technique.
|Duration: 0'54", 848 kB.( 128kB/s, 44100Hz)
The opening of Opus 5 nr. 12 as played by Cavasanti, Guerrero and Erdas
© Cavasanti, Guerrero and Erdas 2004, used with permission
So, to the very famous variations in trio on la Follia by Corelli, which open the concert, the response in false symmetry
at the very end will be the trio of the Folies d'Espagne by Marin Marais, his exact contemporary
the other side of the Alps two admirable pieces of equal length on the same motif, that Portuguese dance of the folia which passed
through Spain (whence the name "Folies d'Espagne" given to it by the French) and whose popularity soon swept
throughout Europe in the 17th century.
Lully adopted the famous theme and d'Anglebert won fame with his variations for harpsichord on the same subject. This is before one finds it in Italy with the 23 variations from Corelli, and then again in France from Marin Marais. Would extravagance itself not be a symbol of the Baroque, a precious asset of the imaginary and a pretext for everything daring, for all metamorphoses?
.Musik und Malerei vermahlen das ist das Anliegen unserer "Museum Collection", in der
Musik und Malerei als zwei Ausdrucksformen des Kulturgefühls
und Zeitgeistes einer Epoche oder eines kulturellen Zentrums
Auf Anregung der "Freunde der Herrenhauser Garten e.V." hat BRISA Entertainment GmbH diese CD-Dose in Zusammenarbeit mit der Stiftung PreuBische Schlösser und Garten Berlin-Brandenburg und dem Bomann-Museum, Celle, zusammengestellt. In Ton Text und Bild werden die Musenhöfe der Kurfürstin Sophie von Hannover und der Königin in PreuBen, Sophie Charlotte, als kulturelle Zentren des Barock deutlich gemacht. Die den beiden Höfen verbundene Musik von Agostino Steffani, Arcangelo Corelli und Georg Friedrich Handel vermittelt das Lebensgefühl um 1700 aufs Innigste.
[...] Munrow extended his activities with the Consort
to a heavy schedule of concerts, tours, and the making of numerous albums,
encompassing the early music of many countries. His popular English
television series Pied Piper considered music of all eras. In the eight
years of Munrow's all-too-brief career before his death in 1976, he
also wrote a book Instruments of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (Oxford
University Press. London: 1976) and composed and arranged the scores
for four feature films, including Ken Russell's The Devils, the EMI-MGM
Henry VIII, John Boorman's Zardoz, and the French documentary La Course
en tête, produced by Vincent Malle and directed by Joël Santoni.
It is Munrow's score for La Course en tête that is heard here. Focussing upon the European bicycle races at Grenoble, the film sensitively explores the anxieties and problems, as well as the pleasures and rewards, of the professional bike riders in competition. For his score, Munrow utilized arrangements of music by Hassler, Praetorius, Susato, Macque, Phalèse, and Corelli, and composed original themes in early music styles. [...]
Arcangelo Corelli (b. Fusignano, 1653; d. Rome, 1713) studied counterpoint with Simonelli and violin with Bassani. His travels as violin virtuoso and composer took him to Paris and throughout Germany. In 1685 he settled in Rome in the service of Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni. Corelli made a major contribution to the development of violin technique. As composer, his sonatas da camera and concerti grossi were the predecessors of the sonatas and concertos of Bach and Handel. David Munrow's "End Music" uses Variations on La Folie d'Espagne from Corelli's, Op. 5 No. 2.
'La Follia' has proven to be one of the most popular and enduring harmonic progressions from the Renaissance and Baroque period. Throughout history 'La Follia' has been used by many great composers including Corelli and Vivaldi, right through to Liszt and Rachmaninoff. This CD contains a wide selection of 'La Follia' variations by Baroque composers, including one of the most well known settings, by Corelli - 'La Follia' from Sonata Op 5, No 12. This work is Corelli at his best, displaying an endless imagination through a succession of variations in ever changing moods and metres. Likewise the setting by Vitali also featured, contains a wealth of variation and invention
The insert in the CD says the Corelli is for 'Altblockflöte und Basschalumeau', but I don't hear any Basschalumeau. The accompaniment seems to be cembalo (Michael Schönheit) and Cello (Bettina Messerschmidt).
Jean-Pierre Nicolas chose the flute in D, pitched a third lower than the standard treble instrument in order to play the exact melodic lines and especially the virtuosic variations of the Follia
Just imagine if everyone had composed in the manner of Arcangelo Corelli, whose variations on an old Spanish Sarabande La Follia caused quite a stir, not only with his contemporaries ...
There is no twelfth sonata. XII is entitled Follia, and is a set of 22 variations on the dance tune of that name which goes back to fifteenth-century Portugal and was a great favourite throughout the baroque era. The 'madness' implied in the title was said to reflect the wild mood of the dancers. Corelli takes us a step further into a state of general derangement. Geminiani, in one of his treatises, names Corelli's variations as the ultimate work of the violin literature, and says 'I have had the pleasure of discoursing with him myself upon this subject, and heard him acknowledge the Satisfaction he took in composing it, and the Value he set upon it.'
Born in Bologna, Italy, Corelli lived in Rome. He has produced the most significant example of a sonata for two or three instruments. He was an innovator in the concerto form which underwent an extraordinary development in the following centuries. "La Folia" certainly one of Corelli's most enchanting works, reveals his real discovery - the instrumental use of the 10 - string guitar and the violin. The resulting resonance lends to Corelli's music all its sensitivity, charm and originality. The balance achieved in the movements of the concerto is a miraculous poetical synthesis.
The 'Follia', too, became a rich stew in the hands of LFA: we get a taste of Corelli and Marais, but also a touch of Scarlatti and Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach. But what does it matter? In the art of arranging, varying and improvising, the question 'which note is whose?' has become absolutely irrelevant.
The oldest form of arrangement known in musical history is the variationof already existing themes. Some of these models really became archetypes: They were varied by so many composers that the original spiritual father fell into oblivion. Two of these essential themes are the English folk song 'Greensleeves' and the sarband tune 'La Folia'. The attraction of these themes lies in the comprehensible harmonic sequences, on which they are based and which have encouraged numerous composers to write so-called ostinato variations, that is improvisations over a bass, that is permanently repeated. This type of variation was already mentioned in a novella by the author of Don Quichote, Miguel de Cervantes, who called this piece 'Folia'. Therefore the famous theme from the Corelli concerto bears the name of a whole variation genre being at the same time its most popular representative. Corelli, the baroque master of the violin and 'inventor' of the concerto grosso, develops from the simple model a whole host of modes of expression, from grandiose festiveness to complicated counterpoint, from sweeping cantabile to brilliant virtuosity.Reinhold Friedrich and Martin Lücker wrote for the slipcase:
Das führte zur 'Follia' von Corelli. Wirklich der helle Wahn diese Musik! (Follia=Wahnsinn, fixe Idee). Aus der originalen Vorlage (Violine und bezifferter Bass) haben wir eine Art organisierter Improvisation gemacht. Zunächst wurde die originale Violinstimme ihrer Länge wegen zwischen Trompete und Orgel aufgeteilt, und dann ging 's kos: Da wird auf der Grundlage der Continuo-Notierung improvisiert, figuriert und konzertiert, kaum etwas haben wir dabei notiert.
The twelfth sonata is "La Follia" by antonomasia, the one that was the basic for the compositions of Marais, Vivaldi, Reali, et al. It was customary to colclude a collection with a series of variations on the same bass (lateron, one will also find examples in Vivaldi, Tessarini, Tartini ...), and Corelli, in truth, deploys a vast range of ideas, metres and phrasings to best illustrate the proud, ancient Iberian theme. Pupil Francesco Geminiani spoke of it in these terms: " I do not pretend to be its inventor: other composers of the very highest level have embarked on the same voyage; and none of them with greater success than the celebrated Corelli, as can be seen in his Opus V, on the Aria de la Follia de Spagnia [sic]. I had the pleasure of discussing this with him and heard him acknowledge the full satisfaction he felt in composing it, and the worth he attributed to it (source).
The last number of Opus 5 is not a sonata but a variation
cycle which is not only the crown of the set but Corelli's greatest
technical achievement. It has a precursor in the Ciacona, the last piece
of the chamber sonatas Opus 2. The ciacona (Chaconne in French), the
passacaglia (passecaille), as wel as the Portuguese folia, whose Italian
spelling is follia are closely related. They are dances in triple time.
The origin of the follia was long a matter of dispute. It was thought to be Spanish, but the Portuguese musicologist Luis de Freitas-Branco has drawn attention to the fact that the noun folia (meaning obsession) and the verb foliar derived from it, are Portuguese and not Spanish words. The follias were known in Portugal as early as the fourteenth century. Yet the tendency to regard the follia as a Spanish dance developed only from the beginning of the seventeenth century and one called them 'Folies d' Espaigne'. At the end of the sixteenth century follias were included in collections of instrumental music. There they invariably appear as variations on an ostinato bass. They can be found in works of Italian, French and German composers and the theme of the follia was heard everywhere.
It seems very strange indeed that through four centuries dozens of composers have used that tune for variations. This phenomenon becomes more puzzling in view of the fact that the range of this tune is only a fourth plus a semitone. Yet it exercised an irresistible magnetic power on a host of composers. Percy Scholes compiled a list of 23 names but remarked "that it is certain that dozens of examples are omitted." His list includes Frescobaldi [red: which is not a folia], Corelli, Vivaldi, Domenico [red: Alessandro the father of Domenico is intended here] Scarlatti (Variazioni sulla Follia di Spagna), Bach (Peasant Cantata, 1742), Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Gretry, Cherubini, Liszt (Spanish Rhapsody for Piano, 1863) and Rachmaninoff with his Variations on a Theme by Corelli (!) for Piano. The tune was well known in Italy and Corelli became familiar with the ostinato technique presumably through the works of Girolamo Frescobaldi whose 'Cento Partite sopra Passacagli' (1637) is on account of its melodic, rhythmic and contrapuntal diversity a worthy predecessor of Corelli's 'La follia' and Chaconne and Passacaglia by elaborations has been thrown on the the market that, it is true, bear Corelli's name but go far beyond the violin technique of his time, elaborations which Pincherle defined as "calamitous disarrangements" of La Follia.
The student of this work who happens to be a violinist will quickly become aware of Corelli's basic conception. The composer's overriding interest centered on violinistic problems and the technique of bowing in particular . Thus, Geminiani's task was a very difficult one because he had to adapt the violinistic style to the ensemble.
Incidentally, the suite in Italy at that time was called sonata da camera, or chamber sonata, so that it could be immediately distinguished from the sonata da chiesa. The 12th and last of the so-called 'sonatas' has nothing to do with either of these: it is a theme with variations. The theme, entitled 'La Follia' - a Spanish dance - was one of the most popular melodies of the day and was arranged by many Baroque composers. But it really only survives today in this last and most popular of Corelli's 12 sonatas.
The last of Corelli's twelve sonatas comprising his Op. 5 consists entirely of a series of increasingly virtuosic variations on 'La Folia'. Originally a Portuguese peasant's dance, the Folia (the etymology of which is related to our 'fool') became the basis for improvisations by more courtly musicians throughout the Iberian peninsula before making its way northwards to France, Italy, England and the Netherlands during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Corelli's version, like the rest of his Op. 5, was highly influential; Vivaldi's Op. 1 trio sonatas of 1705, for example, ends with a set of Folia variations as a direct homage
Duration: 1'04", 1011 kB. (128kB/s, 44100 Hz)
This sonata is performed essentially as Corelli published it, 23 variations on the 'Follia' theme. Perhaps Portuguese in origin, the centuries old "Follia" theme was a popular subject for variation sets of the 17th century. Some have described Corelli's variations as nothing more than bowing exercises, but Corelli makes his bass as active and involved as the solo. This adds considerable interest to a sonata that seems intended as a vehicle for virtuosic display. We employ orchestration that suits the wind soloist and we rely upon trombone multiphonics to take the place of the many passages that call for double-stopped notes on the violin. Trombone multi-phonics is the practice of singing a note with the voice, while at the same time, playing a lower note with the lips. While this is certainly not a Baroque technique, it is an accepted part of 21st century trombone technique. In the same way that Corelli sought to demonstrate the technical capabilities of the violin that flourished in his era, this recording seeks to demonstrate similar capabilities unique to the trombone in the 21st century. Indeed, this recording and its accompanying performance editions aspire to take a place in the unbroken, 300-year performance lineage established upon Corelli's solo sonatas.
Live performance in Het Concertgebouw February 16, 2012
Ik speelde "La Folia" gewoon uit het manuscript voor viool en continuo. Harmonische toevoegingen kwamen logisch voort uit de bc. De regisratie en registerwisselingen zijn afhankelijk van de mogelijkheden van het orgel. (translation: I just played the Corelli variations from the manuscript for violin and basso continuo. Harmonic added parts were derived from the b.c. The registration and stops are of course dependable from the possibilities of the local organ.)In the slipcase is written about Jan Jansen:
Jan Jansen (1946) studied organ, piano and harpsichord at the Utrecht conservatory. In 1966 he won the 'chorale'prize at the national improvisation competition in Bolsward. As a pupil of Cor Kee he gained the Prix dÉxcellence for organ in 1970. Jan Jansen has taught at the Utrecht conservatory since 1973, and he was appointed organist of the Dom in Utrecht in 1987, where he performs weekly with the choir at Saturday afternoon concerts. He has played in Holland and abroa, and has made many recordings (radio, TV,LP,CD).
Duration: 3'52" direct link to YouTube
The first mention of the theme on which 'La Folia' is based occurs in 1505, and a number of compositions bearing that
name appear throughout the 16th century. In 1611 'Tesoro', the first
published dictionary of the Spanish language, gives us this
definition: 'La Folia: Portuguese dance, very loud since in addition
to many people on foot with little cymbals (Basque tambour) and
other instruments, it includes portefaix in costumes carrying on their shoulders
boys dressed as girls who shake their long sleeves, dance sometimes, and play
their cymbals as well; the noise is so loud and the rhythm so fast that they all
seem to be possessed by 'madness' whence the name 'Folia'.
During the seventeenth century, the spirit of the Fpolia changed: from a leaping dance it was transformed into a kind of passacaglia or chaconne, noble and stately. From then on, La Folia came intofashion with composers all across Europe, from Frescobaldi in Italy; Boyce and Arne in England, passing through Lully and d'Anglebert in France and Pergolesi and Bach in Germany. This theme has remained popular with composers such as Cherubini (The Portuguese Hostelry: 1798), Liszt (Spanish Rhapsody: 1863), and Nielsen (Mascarade: 1906).
In Corelli's work, the sixteen-bar tune recurs constantly in the bass, while the violinist proceeds continually through new material, alternating mood and tempo for twenty three variations. The edition used here is that of the nineteenth-century violinist Hubert Leonard, who has altered somewhat the order of Corelli's variations, and has expanded some of them as Corelli himself undoubtedly did in performance.
'La Folia' also belongs to the variations genre. Folia (or Follia, known also as Les Folies d'Espagne
and by other titles) is a famous melody of the early 16th century, probably of Portugese origin, which was used by a great number
of composers as a theme for continuous variations. The Folia has no ritornellos, is almost always in D minor and is geberally slow and dignified.
The Folia began, usually, with a statement in which all second beats were dotted. This threw a powerful secondary accent on the opening chord.
This masterly set of twenty-four variations, which concluded his Op. 5 is Corelli's most difficult as well as his most enduringly popular composition.
With cycle of sonatas opus 5, in which the Sonata "Folies d'Espagne" belongs, Corelli finally established his fame as composer and violinist. This piece of music appeared in print in Rome, Amsterdam and London all in the same year - 1700. This was very unusual at the time (for example, Bach's works were not printed at all during his lifetime.
Dénes Kovács, János Sebestyén and Ede Banda
With the development of the virtuosic repertoire for the violin at the turn of the century it was only natural that the Folia should be included in it. In 1700 the great Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) used it as the basis for a series of exceedingly virtuosic variations with which he concluded his most influential collection of solo sonatas for violin and continuo, the famous Op. 5, the contents of which are known to have circulated in manuscript for more than a decade prior to this printing. In 1704 one of the most representative composers of violin music of the German and Dutch school, Henricus Albicastro, an artistic pseudonym of Johann Heinrich von Weissenburg (ca. 1660 -ca. 1730), published a sonata 'La Follia', which displays a clear Corellian influence in its virtuosic writing. And it was not by accident that a year later, in 1705, the young Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) also chose to conclude a decisive publication in which he placed the highest hopes for the future of his artistic career, his Op. 1 collection of trio-sonatas, with yet another magnificent set of Folia variations.
In May of 1702 John Walsh, the famous London music publisher, issued 'Six Solos for a Flute and Bass' by Arcangelo Corelli. Five of these 'solos' were transcriptions for alto recorder of the celebrated violin sonatas from Opus 5 (which Walsh had published two years earlier). The remaining work, also from Opus 5, was the even more celebrated 'Follia' or 'Spanish Folly': a set of variations on a tune much admired by composers of variations before Corelli's time and since. Recorder transcriptions of all sorts of music, both vocal and instrumental, were commonplace in 17th and early 18th Century England. Players of the recorder (then called the 'flute') were apparently as numerous then as now, since publishers displayed much energy and imagination in supplying their needs.
Incidentally, the suite in Italy at that time was called sonata da camera, or chamber sonata, so that it could be immediately distinguished from the sonata da chiesa. The 12th and last of the so-called 'sonatas' has nothing to do with either of these: it is a theme with variations. The theme, entitled 'La Follia' - a Spanish dance - was one of the most popular melodies of the day and was arranged by many Baroque composers. But it really only survives today in this last and most popular of Corelli's 12 sonatas.
'... It was said that Jefferson's violin playing helped him win his wife's hand in 1772, and it would not be surprising if Maria Cosway was also impressed by his musical abilities. I gravitated to Corelli's Violin Sonata Op 5 no 12 La Follia not only because Jefferson owned multiple editions of this work but also for its sheer beauty. Corelli's La Follia and its orchestrated version by Francesco Geminiani are heard throughout the film, each time helping to highlight the ever-changing emotional landscape. ...'.Jim Stevenson commented in June 2001:
the Geminiani version does not appear to be on the CD. And since the CD is designated ADD and a reference is made to Erato records, it may be that this is an old recording re-released. But I could find no other reference to it. This CD no longer seems to be available through retail outlets. I had to get a copy from used CD dealers.
'La Follia', a dance melody similar in style to a sarabande,
has inspired numerous composers to write variations on it. They include
d'Anglebert (Pièces de Clavecin),
Vivaldi (Op. 1, no 12) and Marais
(Pièces de Violes, Deuxième Livre). Variations on the Follia
melody for recorder over the Follia bass, described as 'Faronels
Ground', appeared in the collection 'The Division Flute' (1706)
(Edition Schott 5737). J.S. Bach in the aria of the Goldberg variations
made use of the popular bass only. Its origin is unknown. It appeared
already in early sources, and was described as 'Italian' by Spanish
composers in the 16th century (cf. D. Ortiz, 'tenore italiano').
Corelli's 'La Follia', Op. 5, no 12, was published by John Walsh (London 1702) in a version for recorder transposed from d to g. It follows the original version for violin exactly, except for the double-stop parts.
There are no thrill signs in the original text (British Museum, London). Other additions made by the editor have been indicated as such. The variant in bar 160 is also to be found in F. Geminiani's Concerto grosso version of Corelli's Op. 5, nr. 12. The pauses that have been inserted by the editor should facilitate the division of the variation sequence.
Opus 5 ends with twenty-four variations on the simple harmonic sequence, said to have originated in the Iberian peninsula: Follia. Many sets of variations in general, and of the Follia in particular, survive on paper, although one suspects that far more were improvised. than were ever written down. One violinist contemporary of Corelli who studied in Rome, Michel Farinel (1649-c.1700), introduced the Follia to England (where it was known as 'Farinel's Ground'). Perhaps it was part of a Roman violinist's everyday repertoire, in which case Corelli's notated version in Opus 5 was perhaps didactic in intent. He certainly provides an A-to-Z of violin technique circa 1700, including variations dedicated to arpeggios, consecutive thirds, running sixteenths and the indispensable messa di voce, the long, sustained bow stroke which was considered to be the key to good violin playing. Alongside these techniques, Corelli also leaves plenty of room for the performers' personal follies.
Since no authentic ornaments for 'La Follia', the last work in Opus 5, were available, the original text has been left untouched, although an eighteenth-century violinist would certainly have added some improvisations. Only the last variation was extended to include Veracini's coda. Otherwise we avoided Verancini's versions of Opus 5, since they entail too sweeping changes in the whole composition.
Mistein plays Corelli variations
with piano as basso continuo
Selbst Corellis berühmte "Folia"-Variationen - natürlich für die hellere, strahlendere Violine komponiert - wirken bei Mönkemeyer so unstrittig "richtig", so lebendig, schmissig und wild, dass die guten fünf Zentimeter mehr zwischen Wirbeln und Kinnstütze nicht ins Gewicht fallen - allenfalls positiv, wegen der extra Portion warmem, satten Sound.
The last and most celebrated sonata contains the variations on the
passionate theme La Folia, which areexceptionally virtuosic for Corelli. 'La Folia' was to
become one of the most famous tunes in music history. The melody was taken from a Spanish dance,
like a sarabande, but wild and exuberant as in the original sense of the word folia: madness or frenzy.
It was gladly embraced by a whole line of western composers, from Lully, Corelli, Marin Marais
via Alessandro Scarlatti, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach to Liszt and Rachmaninov.
As a homage to his great example, Corelli's pupil Francesco Geminiani published a series of twelve concerti grossi in London from 1726, based on Corelli's sensational Violin Sonates op.5. What has been a highly virtuosic piece for solo violin in Corelli's hands became a merciless exercise for string orchestra in Gemininani's
The fifth volume of the Takako Nishizaki Plays Suzuki Evergreens starts with an arrangement by Shinichi Suzuki of Arcangelo Corelli’s variations based on the popular dance, La Folia. Corelli, with his twelve sonatas for violin and keyboard, his trio sonatas and his dozen concerti grossi, exercised a strong influence on his successors, with many of his works familiar before his death in Rome in 1713 and their final publication. His Op. 5, No. 12 is a set of variations on La Folia, a dance that was to form the basis of various compositions by his contemporaries and successors.
There were apparently quite a number of skilled recorder-players in 18th century England, and by 1702 at the latest, Corelli was a household name to them: this was the year when local publisher John Walsh brought out several recorder arrangements of the op.2 & 4 trio sonatas as well as of the famous op.5 violin sonatas. In the latter case, however, the arrangements were only made of the last six of the set of twelve, which are set in the sonata da "camera style". In the last sonata of the set, op. 5 no. 12 in G minor, Corelli sets the melody of then popular Portuguese dance "La Follia" with a total of 21 variations, in whose ostinato harmonies the bass line is quite virtuoso in places
I stayed [in Hamburg] fifteen and a half years for the entire Nazi period, the war and the defeat. This was only possible because of the open-mindedness that has always been a characteristic of this city. My personal and political opinions would have surely made it impossible for me to live in Berlin, Dresden or Munich.
But this recital [...] is an act of hommage not only to Kreisler but to the long tradition of great violonist composers who came before himn, and of which het was the last representative. The point is implicit in the opening track. Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) is widely regarded as the most illustrious founder of that tradition. Ironically he is perhaps best known for a theme he never actually composed. La Folia is in fact a anonymous Iberian dance song from the 17th century, much varied by composers from that time onwards (among them Franz Liszt and Kreisler's friend an collaborator Sergei Rachmaninov).
The score (or set of parts, rather) used by us comes from a facsimile set of an undated publication by the famous eitheenth-century London publisher John Walsh. As stated on the printed title pag, the set of six sonatas was "transposed and made fit for the flute (that is , the recorder, as opposed to the "German" or traverso flute) and bass with the approbation of several eminent masters". The anonymous transscriber made rather clever allowances for a wind instrument, particularly with respect to the violinistic figurations found in the variations on "La Follia". The bass part rather sloppily replicates most of the figures found in the original Roman printing of 1700, and in general the publication lacks the aesthetic finesse of either that printing or the one by Roger of Amsterdam.
The Purcell Quartet plays all variations by Arcangelo Corelli
Duration: 10'12", 9592 kB. (128kB/s, 44100 Hz)
A comment on the Quadro - since Dorothee joined the Trio of the Lo Specchio Ricomposto I actually started considering this a sort of 'issue 0' for the quartet. Dorothee is a very good player, and also the trio was very good. But the four of them together really exceedes the mere sum of the components! There is something really unparalleled in the quality of the 'ensemble' sound which was (almost) never heard before. QJ resembles the Quadro Hotteterre, actually the Quadro in their name is an obvious hommage to the Dutch group, which is now unfortunately disbanded, and I have always considered Kees Boeke and Walter van Hauwe with the highest respect. More astonishing, the recording you have is from the FIRST concert QJ performed together. I was not there, but when they came back with the DAT tape I was really thrilled. I must also bow my head to Lorenzo and Paola for the recording sound quality: Lorenzo has a portabe profi equipement, and they did all the mike positioning by themselves, with the festival staff only helping with the on-off button. And when a few months later I finally had chance to listen to the quartet live, it was even better. It's a great group!
. I found some informations about its publication on Imslp (http://imslp.org/wiki/Corelli_Album_%28Corelli,_Arcangelo%29")... It says 1895-96, the year of 1st publication.
Concerning Reinecke version I found these links with Corelli:
- Reinecke piece has 11 var. instead of Corelli's 22 var.
- Var.n.4-5 in Corelli are gathered in Var.4 (Reinecke) so Var.6 (C) become Var.5 (R)
- Var.7-10 (C) missing in R.
- Var.11 (C) become Var.6
- Var.12 missin'
- Var.13 become Var.7 (R) and Var.14 become Var.8 but very freely transcribed, in this last case
- Var.15(C) is Var.9 (R)
- Var.16,17,18,19 (C) missin'
- Var.20(C) is Var.10(R)
- Var.21 missin and last Var.22 (C) "sounds like" last Var.11 (R) but we cannot say it's the same piece, just the bass line is the same.
These 18th century editions are the basis for the programme that Frédéric de Roos has compiled: it includes not only various sonatas and concerti but also the famous variations on La Folia and the Concerto latto per la notte di Natale, in which the timbre of the recorder accents the music's pastoral character. [...] the 12th sonata stands out from the others, it being the renowned La Folia, a series of variations on the bass that had already been popular for over a century. [...] We have also chosen (to) make a free interpretation of Walsh's arrangements of La Follia, judging that the respect for the strong emotions that we find in Corelli's work would have been much more important for our virtual player and for us than a strict respect for the arranger's notes.
Both 'La Follia' and the Corelli sonata were composed for violin, but the flute versions are derived from 18Ih century sources which show the popularity of these works among the flautists of the time. The sonata is one of a series of five works named in sources as works by Corelli, which however has not prevented many researchers from doubting their authenticity, as these works vary in style from other works by Corelli.
Originally, this theme was a Portugese dance, but during the course of the 17th century, on an Iberian peninsula, it was said to have originated from a certain melody - 'Les Folies d'Espagne' (the Spanish fools). It became very popular in many parts of Europe and was chosen by several composers as a basis for writing variations on a theme. The original sarabande or chaconne rhythm could even be combined with the specific technique of a recurrent bass part and also forms the basis for Corelli's 'La Folia' - although in the middle section a smooth rhythm is used for three variations.
Live performance of an arrangement for organ solo Barcelona, May 14, 2008
'Arcangelo Corelli's La Folia' is a symphonic, almost Bach-like track with synth strings leading the way on a jaunty piece of modern day classically influence synth music.
Arcangelo Corelli's La Folia
Ahora a tocar ahora una de las pocas piezas que si esta solita: es una Folia del compositor italiano Arcangelo Corelli,
que vivio a fines del siglo XVII y principios del siglo XVIII. La Folia o mas bien como comunmente se conocian
las Folias, no se por que tenian nombre en plural.
Decian en una obra espanola de teatro del principio del siglo XVII, que las Folias es, son las aguelas de todos los Sones (lo ponian asi con "g": las aguelas de todos los Sones), porque eran el Son mas antiguo. Es un son que existe desde mediados, por lo menos desde mediados del siglo XVI, y que de alguna u otra manera se ha conservado vivo desde aquel entonces. La esencia de nuestro proyecto consiste en el mezclar estos sones muy antiguos que existen desde el siglo XVI con los actuales sones tradicionales de Mexico (como los sones huastecos, jarochos, planecos de Michoacan, con los arriben~os de por aqui de toda esta region) y encontrar las similitudes que sabemos que estan ahi. En esta ocasion... Bueno, el ano pasado, debo decir que tuvimos el gusto de estar en este mismo recinto con Jordi Savall, y el estaba muy sorprendido porque el traia una pieza italiana, y la empezo a tocar, la pieza barroca, y uno de nuestros companeros, Patricio Hidalgo inmediatamente empezo a tocar una pieza jarocha encima de ella. Entonces era como ensenarle una pieza tradicional mexicana a un musico barroco. Lo que hicimos ahora fue traer una pieza barroca y ensenar.. mostrarsela a un musico tradicional mexicano, a Ulises, que son unas folias para violin escritas por este compositor italiano, que sin embargo son un son, como cualquier otro, no son como una pieza barroca muy especial, son tan son como la Bamba o cualquier otro. Y de hecho, cuando lo estabamos tocando con el, les decia: estas figuras melodicas de aqui parecen huastecas, del violin. Y luego decia: estas no parecen huastecas, estas son huastecas: es una pieza huasteca. Entonces, decidimos dejarlo que el convirtiera estas folias barrocas que estan todas escritas: esta es una fotocopia del facsimil del original, pero que las tratara libremente como lo hace con la musica viva y que las convirtiera en una pieza jarocha, huasteca de hace 300 anos, de hoy. Yo creo que si la musica esta viva, funcionara, y aqui encontramos a la abuela de todos los sones viendo a sus tataranietos huastecos en el esplendido violin de Ulises.
Now we are going to play one of the few pieces that are not paired: it is a Folia by the Italian composer Arcangelo Corelli, who lived at the end of the 17th century and beginning of the 18th century. The folia, or as it was more commonly known Folias (I have no idea of why the name is used in plural)... A Spanish theatre work from the beginning of the 17th century said that the Folias were the grandmother of all "sones", because they are the oldest "son". It is a "son" that exists at least from the middle of the 16th century, and which has been kept alive since then. The essence of our project consists of mixing these very old "sones" from the 16th century with today's traditional Mexican "sones" (Huastec-, Jarocho-, Michoacan planeco- and also arribeño-sones from this region) and discover the similarities that are there. On this occasion... Well, last year, I have to say that we had the pleasure to be at this same venue along with Jordi Savall, and he was very surprised because he brought an Italian piece, and when he started to play it, one of our colleagues, Patricio Hidalgo, immediately started playing a Jarocho piece on top of it. It was like teaching a traditional piece to a baroque musician. What we did now, was to show a baroque piece and teach... show it to a Mexican traditional musician, Ulises, and these are the folias for violin written by this Italian composer (Corelli), that are however a "son" like any other "son", and not like a very special baroque piece, as they are just a son like the Bamba or any other son. And when we were playing them with him, I told them: these melodic figurations seem Huastec, in the violin. And then I said: these, not only appear to be Huastec, these are Huastec: it is a Huastec piece. Then, we decided to allow Ulises to transform these baroque folias which are completely written (this is a photocopy of the facsimile of the original), and treat them freely, the same way he does with live music, and transform them into a Jarocho piece, a Huastec piece from 300 years ago, as of today. I believe that if this music is alive, it will work, and here, the grandmother of all "sones" will be watching all her Huastec granchildren under the splendid violin of Ulises.
In the 'Follia' variations, a baroque guitar helps to bring out the Spanish roots of the theme.
Playing Corelli's 'La Folia'hundreds of times has never
filled us with boredom. Again and again it is a wonderful piece to play,
rendering endless possibilities. It is an ideal piece of music for members
of estabished ensembles to explore one another's horizons, to wait and
see how they will react to one another, how the musical impulses of
one musician are being understood and creativity worked out by another.
It is attractive because of the full measure of always impressing virtuosity
and of course because of the large range of changes, in spite of an
endless repetition in harmonic scheme. The recorder as well as the continuo
are fully recognized being equally important.
It is interesting to know, that the basso ostinato which 'The Follia' literally is based upon, has inspired numerous composers, amongst whom Rachmaninov. One variation from his 'Corelli-variations' (in major!) enabled us to create a wonderful moment of light in our interpretation'.
Follia: 1st version violino e violone; 2nd version violino e cimbalo, ornamentation improvised
Follia (more commonly spelled folia in Portugal, Spain and Italy) is the name given to a musical framework used for songs. dances and sets of variations during the Baroque period. There are two distinct phases in its history: the first, from the late 15th century in Portugal to the third quarter of the 17th century in Spain and Italy was strongly associated with the guitar, and with songs and dances accompanied by the guitar. It was usually fast, with the wildness of spirit suggested by the name. In 1671 Francesco Corbetta published a set of Folia variations in which all the second beats were dotted; this, some changes to the harmonic structure of the early folia and the emergence of a virtually fixed melody led rapidly to the later folia. Almost always in D minor, the later folia was generally slower and more dignified than its forerunner. The earliest version is a 1672 Air des Hautbois by Lully, and in this form it flourished especially in France and England. Variations by Vivaldi, Alessandro Scarlatti, C.P.E. Bach, Marin Marais and others are all eclipsed in renown by these by Corelli, the most famous music he wrote.
In 1700, A. Corelli published his op. V, 12 sonatas
for violin and bass, which immediately met with an immense success,
thanks in great part to the 'Follia' that included the work. As early
as 1702, the London editor John Walsh published a transcription of the
last 6 sonatas of the op. V - including the 'Follia' - for recorder
and bass, under the title: 'Six Solos for a Flute and Bass by Archangelo
Corelli being the second part of his fifth opera containing preludes
allmands corrants jiggs sarabands gavotts with the Spanish Folly. The
whole exactly Transpos'd and made fitt for a flute and a bass with the
aprobation of several eminent masters'.
This is the version that is always chosen by recorder players. If it is not quite as 'exactly Transpos'd' as he claims, Walsh's realization is nonetheless well adapted to the recorder, and this no doubt is the reason why - in addition to the interest of Corelli's composition - his transcription has known undisputed success until today
It is clear that Walsh intended to present a simplified transcription of the 'Follia' avoiding the low f sharp (the boring of double holes on the instrument being a rare occurance in the 18th century), as well as the high register, whenever possible. However, if certain 'octaviations' are indeed required by the compass of the recorder - more limited than that of the violin - others could have been avoideed in Walsh's version use of high notes. Also, Walsh deletes - in the recorder version - all double-stops written by Corelli for the violin. Yet these double notes are perfectly manageable on the recorder if the performer simulaneously plays the alto recorder with the left hand (the recorderstabilized by resting on the left knee), and the soprano recorder with the right hand: this process today employed in contemporary music, was practiced during the 18th century on the flageolet and double flute, and hails back at least to the double aulos of the Greeks ... Obviously, the double not performance of certain variations is left here to the taste of the personal player.
Richard Zipf plays his arrangement for organ solo
Duration: 2'21" direct link to YouTube
|Opening of Les Folies d'Espagne (1749)*|
| * In the original publication
of the sheet music the fingering is indicated
to emphasize that the piece was written as an exercise for pupils
Fernando De Luca plays Folies d'Espagne
Why I have chosen this piece by Corrette? Well it is a piece that belongs to his treatise to learn how to play the harpsichord. It is a didactical piece where the fingering is indicated. It is a good example of home made music not intended for the virtuosi. I like the piece particularly because it shows that the popular piece was arranged for several purposes.
In my 'La Folia' I continue an ongoing pursuit: to write
music about music. This is an idea that came to me from Mahler by way of
Henze. This work is not a standard set of variations on the Folia theme.
Here, the theme itself haunts the margins of the piece, not so much in an
integrated, nicely-tied-together sort of way, but rather such that this
ancient idea seems to be trying to force its way into the present, into
my present. This approach to composing has always made sense to me, since
what I do – write orchestral and chamber music – has always seemed to me
an odd, anachronistic thing, belonging more to the past than the present,
and as such, a little mad.
In 1982 Gregorio Paniagua produced an album called 'La Folia', a set of variations on the theme which seem to emphasize the insanity aspect: the orchestration includes viols, crumhorns, sitar, a klezmer band, and the sound of a car engine starting. It is a stunning, hilarious compilation. In his very impressionistic notes for the album, Paniagua made the following observation, which sums up perfectly my own feelings about 'La Folia', and about writing music in general: 'All the composers in the world who write their own Folia don't keep a close account of what they are doing. They mature patiently like the tree that does not haste his sap; They soak up everything and remain confident in the torments of spring, without anxiety that they might not know another spring. And spring comes and a quiet weariness overcomes them, even if they are patient, carefree and calm, as if all eternity lay before them. They can then love their Folia and their solitude; they endure the pain it causes them and succeed in investing the sound of their complaint with beauty.'
Duration: 1'32", 363 kB. (32kB/s, 32KHz)
I have long had a fascination with the original theme, after I studied the Corelli variations as a freshman violin major in undergrad years ago. As I recall, I had recently completed making an arrangement of the Salieri variations for violin & piano (which are published by Wolfhead Music) and decided to write a series of variations of my own. Some of these had been juggling around in my head for many years. The variations I wrote are in neo-classical style, thereby giving homage to the great works of Corelli and Salieri, but the variations are all original.The work was premiered by Ljubomir Velickovic (violin) and Dmitry Cogan (piano) in Sacrameto, California, US, in January 2010.
Fragment of the premiere (live performance) by the 2006 MacPhail Suzuki Guitar Quartet
I freely composed over the bass progression commonly used by previous composers, but aside from that, my piece is not modeled after any other composer's treatment of la folia. I've always felt that the progression was beautiful and moving, so when the time came for me to compose a set of guitar quartets, it seemed natural to turn my efforts to this traditional form. Structurally, my piece (a set of continuous variations) has a two-measure introduction and a brief coda, and some of the variations have elisions between the end of one section and the beginning of the next.
As you listen to my piece, I think you will find that, while remaining largely consonant, it employs a modern harmonic language.
The idea of "echi e follie" came to existence during my live concerts, in which i usually play classic peices and try to give them a touch of modernity. I decided to use Marin Marais's variations on the folia theme, and develop them in various directions.
It's entirely for cello, and all its tecniques. the music is very physical, and I tried to give it emotional freedom in order to create a connection between the cello's voice and the cellist's. "Echi e follie" is an outpouring of different emotions. Also in Matteo Levaggi's work you can see this very important feature.
"Echi e follie" is a musical project that I wrote on commission from the Balletto Teatro di Torino with choreography by Matteo Levaggi. The debut took place in February 2010 in Collegno (Turin) in the Lavanderia a Vapore (http://www.lavanderiaavapore.it/) one of the most important Dance center of Italy. Lavanderia a vapore was the true laundry of the mental hospital of Collegno (suburb of turin).
It was then taken on tour and is a project that we still have among the proposals. In summer 2010, the title became La folia :"Echi e Follie" was also performed at the Ravello Festival in 2010.
I started to actualize the theme of "La Folia", writing sections that they like the bass and at times creating new sonorities created by delays or dissonance. In the Scene there's solo cello. (i work with my sound engineer with live electronics and file)
The lineup includes more movements and not everyone is in the bass line or theme of the Folia Marais is recognizable. Similarly, I wrote some scores titled "ECHI" who are opposed to "FOLLIE" and have different themes.
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